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ISSN : 1225-8504(Print)
ISSN : 2287-8165(Online)
Journal of the Korean Society of International Agricultue Vol.32 No.1 pp.31-37
DOI : https://doi.org/10.12719/KSIA.2020.32.1.31

Current Status and Prospects of Small Fruit Production in Taiwan

Ho-Jin Seo*, Sang-Jin Yang*, Jang Hoon Song*, Kyeong Bok Ma*, Iou-Zen Chen**, Su-Feng Roan***
*Pear Research Institute, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, Naju, 58216, Republic of Korea
**Department of Horticulture and Architecture, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C.
***Department of Horticulture and Biotechnology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 11114, Taiwan R.O.C.
Corresponding author (Phone) +886-0228610511 (E-mail) rsf@faculty.pccu.edu.tw
January 13, 2020 February 18, 2020 February 24, 2020

Abstract


Although Taiwan produces small fruits on a small scale, it is famous for its production techniques and systems. Only two types of small fruits are economically produced in Taiwan: the grape and strawberry. Four other types (the mulberry Morus alba L., the bayberry Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc., the Indian gooseberry Phyllanthus emblica L., and the kiwifruit or Chinese gooseberry Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. setosa and A. deliciosa Ferg.) have production areas of less than 100 ha. Taiwan has been developing production techniques for fruits such as the blueberry. In 2017, Taiwan had production areas of 2,828.6 ha for grapes, 500.33 ha for strawberries, 67.56 ha for mulberries, 31.17 ha for bayberries, and 14.19 ha for kiwifruit. The development of new small fruit crops demands new culture methods and strategies. It is important to breed or select new small fruits from the native germplasm when introducing new foreign varieties. Some special conditions, such as breeding the blueberry plant with a short chilling requirement, are needed. Further, new culture systems such as year-round production for grape, mulberry, and strawberry have been tried. Although Taiwan has cultivated grapes for wine production for over 40 years, new grape cultivar breeding programs for wine production have been introduced.



대만의 소과류 과실 생산 현황 및 전망

서 호진*, 양 상진*, 송 장훈*, 마 경복*, Iou-Zen Chen**, Su-Feng Roan***
*국립원예특작과학원 배연구소
**국립대만대학교 원예학과
***중국문화대학교 원예학과

초록


    Rural Development Administration
    PJ01355301

    INTRODUCTION

    In Taiwan, the market and production of small fruit crops are small compared with those of other fruit crops. Most small fruit crops (except the bayberry and the mulberry) have been introduced from foreign countries, including mainland China. In terms of area and economic value, grapes and strawberries are economically produced. The largest small-fruit industry in Taiwan is the grape, especially the table grape, followed by strawberries. Taiwan also produces mulberries, bayberries, kiwifruit, and Indian gooseberries, but on a very small scale.

    Although plantation sizes are small, Taiwan has active breeding programs for grapes (Chang, et al., 2009a, b;Yeh, et al., 2016), strawberries (Lee and Lee, 1999;Luo et al., 2016), kiwifruit (Chou and Nee, 2004;2005;Chou, et al., 2011), mulberries (Chang, 2006), and Indian gooseberries (Lui, 2018). Furthermore, Taiwan has developed unique production systems for grapes and mulberries. By integrating the unique climatic environment, geographical conditions, and cultivation techniques, such as pruning and bud-forcing, the “three-crops-one-year” model was successfully developed in Taiwan during the 1970s (Chang et al., 2004). Attempts have been made to collect and study other small fruit crops and native germplasms, such as Actinidia spp., Fragaria hayatae, and Vitis spp. (Lee, et al., 2007), but no significant achievement has been recorded.

    Currently, agricultural sector cooperation, imports, and exports between Korea and Taiwan are increasing. However, Taiwan is known only as a representative importer of fruits. Furthermore, information on the fruit industry in Taiwan is lacking or difficult to access. In the present study, we report the current status and research trends of major small fruit production in Taiwan.

    Current status of small fruit production in Taiwan

    1. Grape

    (1) Production

    Several cultivars of grapes have been used in Taiwan, the most common being the hybrid between Vitis vinifera and V. labrusca. The most important cultivar was ‘Kyoho’ (V. vinifera × V. labrusca; 2,640.32 ha production area), followed by ‘Black queen’ (V. viniferaV. labrusca; 94.21 ha), ‘Golden Masca’ (V. viniferaV. labrusca; 49.63 ha), ‘Italian-IP65’ (V. vinifera; 5.35 ha), and others (39.04 ha). ‘Kyoho’ and ‘Italian IP-65’ were the most important cultivars for table grape production in Taiwan, while the ‘Golden Muscat’ and ‘Black Queen’ were the major wine grape varieties in Taiwan since the 1960s. The planting area has increased since the Taiwan Tobacco & Liquor Corporation started producing wine. The Taichung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station (TDARES) released five wine-specific cultivars but still used the existing hybrid of V. vinifera and V. labrusca (Chang, et al., 2009a,b;Yeh, et al., 2016).

    Fig. 1 shows changes in the production and plantation of grape from 2008 to 2017. Although the planting area was reduced due to labor shortages, the decline in production was overcome through continuous technological development and increasing efficiency since the 2000s.

    The plantation area in Taiwan is shown in Fig. 2. Most areas are in central Taiwan, especially Changhua (1324.8 ha), Taichung (545.9 ha), Miaoli (480.4 ha), and Nantou (447.3 ha).

    (2) Research and development

    The earliest record of grape introduction into Taiwan dates back to the 17th century. The Japanese tried to introduce grapes during their rule, but the attempts were unsuccessful (Chen, 2014;Kang, et al., 1973;Lin, 2004). Most main grape cultivars were introduced after World War II. During the 1970s, the National Taiwan University introduced ‘Concord’ from the United States of America (USA) for the juice industry, as well as several V. vinifera cultivars for the wine industry (Kang, et al., 1973), and changed to vegetative propagation methods using rootstock cultivars to improve fruit quality (Chang, 1986;Chen, 1979;Chen, et al., 1965;Su, 1982;Su and Cheng, 1983), especially total soluble solid content (Liu, 2014).

    A grape breeding program was created by the Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute (TARI), TDARES, and the National Chung Hsing University, with eight cultivars released from 2006 to 2017.

    Taiwan was famous for the multi-harvest system of grape production. Theoretically, ‘Kyoho’ grape could be harvested thrice every year (Kang, 1979), but fruit quality was inadequate and pest control was difficult due to overlap between the three growth cycles. Hence, most vineyards produced first and third crops, which were harvested from July to August and from December to January the next year, respectively (Chang, et al., 2004;Lain and Chang, 2004). During this decade, a new forcing culture method was developed to produce early grapes (Chang et al., 2004;Yeh, et al., 2014). These fruit could be harvested before May because of new dormancy-overcoming methods, as well as the development of inflorescence and the promotion of flowering in cool temperatures.

    2. Strawberry

    (1) Production

    The hill cultural system of field condition and infrashort- day strawberry cultivars have been used in Taiwan for strawberry production. The hill cultural system is a method of cultivation strawberry at high altitude areas in Taiwan. Most of Taiwan’s strawberry production has been for fresh market and pick-your-own farms. The tourist usually visit to cultivation areas to experience harvesting fruits by pick-your-own farms. Since the height of the tourist season is from November to February. With constant demand, the plantation area was around 400 to 600 ha during these two decades, and the yield varied from around 7,000 to 9,000 T (Fig. 3).

    Although Taiwan has several high-altitude areas to produce strawberries throughout the whole year, almost all of its strawberries were planted and produced in low land areas in winter. More than 90% of strawberry plantations were located in Miaoli county (Fig. 4.).

    (2) Research and development

    Although the plantation scale of strawberries is small, Taiwan is actively involved in research and development. Four ISD cultivars were released from TDARES (Lee and Lee, 1999;Luo et al., 2016). A series of studies investigated the effects of photoperiod, night interruption, and temperature (Chen, 2014;Kuo, 2009;Lee, 2010;Yen, 2013). Some of the findings were used for plant factories, while others were used for propagation, cultivation, and environment adaptability evaluation.

    3. Mulberry

    (1) Production

    Taiwan has been a globally important silk production area. Several mulberry cultivars have been created in Taiwan for leaf use, and a few for fruit use. As the silk industry disappeared, some leaf cultivars were taken over by fruit cultivars. In 2017, Taiwan had 67.56 ha of mulberry plantations and produced 965 T of mulberry fruit. Considering the lack of mulberry processing systems, most mulberries were used for table and leisure agriculture (Fig. 5).

    (2) Research and development

    The Miaoli District Agricultural Research and Extension Station (MDARES) released two fruit cultivars (Chang, 2006) and developed a forcing culture method, which not only regulated supply but also allowed harvesting twice per year (Lin, 1999).

    4. Kiwifruit (Chinese gooseberry)

    (1) Production

    Kiwifruit was promoted by the Taiwan government during 1970s. Kiwi plants are deciduous fruit trees that are not suitable for the Taiwan climate and can only be cultivated in high altitude areas, so the cultivation area has not increased. In high-altitude areas, a few farmers still cultivated kiwifruit, while some preferred the superior native fruit Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. setosa for economic efficiency. Hence, two species, A. chinensis Planch. var. setosa and A. deliciosa Ferg, were used in Taiwan. In 2017, the plantation area was only 14.2 ha, while the harvest was 139 T. Fig. 6 shows the main production areas in 2017.

    (2) Research and development

    Taiwan introduced the kiwifruit from New Zealand in the 1970s and created a breeding program to select low chilling plants, but only had limited success. Chou (2007), and Chou and Nee (2004 and 2005) released two cultivars selected from the ‘Bruno’ open pollination population from the National Chung Hsing University. Chou and Nee (2005) also collected and selected A. chinensis Planch. var. setosa, and released another cultivar. A few published research articles describe the components of the fruit, agricultural system (Chou, et al., 2011), and germplasm, but the plantation scale remains very small.

    5. Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.)

    Taiwan is one of the original producers of bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.). It was commonly used as an ornamental and fruit tree in the northern part of Taiwan in 2017 (Fig. 7), with 31.17 ha planted and 256 T of fruit harvested. Some amateur breeding has been reported, but no published data are available.

    6. Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica L.)

    Introduced from India, the Indian gooseberry was used as a pickled fruit in Taiwan for a long time. During this decade, MDARES released two cultivars (Lui, 2017) and developed an economical production system. Scarce data exist for this crop as it is a newly developed crop.

    A perspective on small fruit production in Taiwan

    Recently, the total cultivation area of small fruits in Taiwan is 3,446.48 ha. Grape production dominates at 2,828.55 ha (82%), followed by strawberries (500 ha or 15%) (Fig. 8).

    Small fruit consumption is rapidly increasing in Taiwan. In 2018, Taiwan imported 36,776 T of fresh kiwifruit, 25,914 T of fresh grapes, 5,900 T of raisins, 4,170 T of grape juice, 20.2 ML of wine, and 11.2 T brandy and grappa, as well as other small fruits such as blueberries, baby kiwifruit, raspberries, currents, and blackberries. Hence, further studies on new small fruits and their production are desirable.

    It is important to not only introduce new small fruits but also develop native fruit species. Breeding programs created for some new fruits, such as blueberries and blackberries, can overcome the dormancy problems. In blueberries, lines with low chilling requirements were selected from the southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Ait.). Native species included Actinidia spp. and F. hyatae (Hsu, 2010;Lee, et al., 2007;Lee, 2009).

    New production methods, such as new forcing cultures for grape and strawberry to extend the production season, are currently being studied. Pest-free or clean plant matter is very important for the long-term vegetative propagation of plants (Su, et al., 2001; Tsai and Cheng, 1995;Tsay and Cheng, 1987).

    At present, many studies have been conducted in the fruit sector of Korea and Taiwan with respect to climate change. Taiwan can grow temperate, tropical, and subtropical crops depending on the altitude, including many fruit crops. Recent trends in the research and development of small fruits in Taiwan will help the development of bilateral agriculture agreements between Taiwan and Korea, especially through continuous academic research exchanges between agricultural universities and related agricultural organizations.

    적 요

    대만의 소과류 작물의 생산량은 적지만 생산 시스템은 매우 발달이 되어있다. 2017년 기준 대만 내 소과류 전체 재배면적 은 2826.6 ha로 이 중 포도(500.33 ha)와, 딸기(67.56 ha)가 가 장 많이 재배되고 있다. 다음으로는 오디나무 (Morus alba L.), 베이베리 (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), 인도 구스베리 (Phyllanthus emblica L.) 순으로 재배가 많이 되고 있다. 현 재 대만은 새로운 품종 육성과 재배 시스템 개발을 위해 많은 노력을 기울이고 있는데 최근 블루베리를 대상으로 대만 기후 에 적합한 저온요구도가 낮은 품종을 육종 중에 있으며 또한 포도와 딸기는 연중 생산이 가능한 재배법이 개발이 되어 농 가에 보급되었다. 대만은 40년 이상 생과 위주의 포도 품종으 로 생산을 하였으나, 최근에는 와인용 포도 품종 등을 육종 연구가 지속적으로 이루어지고 있다.

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea (Project No.: PJ01355301). The authors would like to thank the National Taiwan University and Chinese Culture University for their support and assistance.

    Figure

    KSIA-32-1-31_F1.gif

    Grape planting area and production in Taiwan from 2008 to 2017.

    KSIA-32-1-31_F2.gif

    Grape plantation areas of Taiwan in 2017.

    KSIA-32-1-31_F3.gif

    Strawberry planting area and production in Taiwan from 2008 to 2017.

    KSIA-32-1-31_F4.gif

    Strawberry plantation distribution in Taiwan.

    KSIA-32-1-31_F5.gif

    Mulberry plantation distribution in Taiwan in 2017.

    KSIA-32-1-31_F6.gif

    Kiwifruit plantation distribution in Taiwan in 2017.

    KSIA-32-1-31_F7.gif

    Chinese bayberry plantation distribution in Taiwan in 2017.

    KSIA-32-1-31_F8.gif

    Ratio of small fruits cultivation area in Taiwan in 2017.

    Table

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