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ISSN : 1225-8504(Print)
ISSN : 2287-8165(Online)
Journal of the Korean Society of International Agriculture Vol.35 No.1 pp.18-30

The Acceptability of Locally-Adapted Japonica Rice Variety in the Philippine Market: A Product Market Test Approach

Renen Szilardo C. de Guzman*†, Jewel Joanna S. Cabardo*, Dong-Soo Park**, Jung-Pil Suh***
*Department of Agribusiness Management and Entrepreneurship, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College Laguna, 4030, Philippines
**Department of Southern Area Crop Science, NICS, 55365, Korea
***International Rice Research Institute, College, Los Baños, Laguna,4030, Philippines
Corresponding author (Phone) +63-926-141-5452 (E-mail)
February 2, 2023 February 17, 2023 February 20, 2023


To determine the acceptability of Grain Utilization Value Added (GUVA) Japonica rice variety developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and South Korea’s Rural Development Authority (RDA), home use tests were conducted in n=69 businesses that were using Japonica rice. In general, they were satisfied with the Japonica brands, because they provided them with the particulars needed in their Japanese and Korean dishes. According to them, the value and quality of the Japonica rice justify the price. However, the GUVA Japonica Rice variety’s positive ratings were significantly lower compared to the brands they were used to. This applied to both their overall and attributespecific evaluations. Among the attributes, size, shape, aroma, and stickiness received significantly lower ratings compared to the other Japonica varieties. For them, it was too small, too round, less aromatic, and less sticky which may lead to challenges in preparation consequently affecting the commercial acceptability of the dishes they offer. Even with this experience and perception, they were still willing to consider the GUVA Japonica Rice when it was available in the market. Using the Van Westendorp pricing model, GUVA Japonica yielded a price of PHP 51.00 (1.01 USD) which was competitive. These findings provide recommendations for measures that should be put in place so that value chain players can preserve and maintain quality until the rice reach the business market.

필리핀 시장에서 현지 적응형 자포니카 품종의 수용 가능성 결정: 상업시장 간의 제품 테스트 접근 방식

레넨 실라르도 C. 데 구즈만*†, 쥬얼 조안나 S. 카바르도*, 박 동수**, 서 정필***
*필리핀대학교 로스바뇨스캠퍼스 농업경영 및 기업가정신학부
**국립식량과학원 남부작물부



    Filipino’s tastes and preferences towards food have become more diverse in recent years. Though American, Italian, Mexican, Japanese, and Middle Eastern cuisines have long been on the plates and baskets of consumers, Korean cuisine has only been recently popular. This popularity, fueled by Korean pop culture and media, has been also manifesting in the economy, evidenced by mushrooming Korean convenience stores and restaurants offering Samgyeopsal all over the country. In fact, in a four-year measurement, the number of Korean restaurants grew by 81.2% in 2018 according to the Korean Food Promotion Institute (Tupas & Lee, 2020). This trend and development were seen to be a potential and an opportunity to influence demand on one of the major components of their cuisine -Japonica rice. Japonica rice has been present in the country even before the popularity of Korea in the media and market. The fondness of Filipinos towards Japanese cuisine was already expected as both cultures have a particular love for rice. (Mise En Place, 2019). Among Filipino, Japanese, and Korean meals, rice has been an integral part, if not the center of every meal. The demand growth possibility and the premium that Japonica Rice commands translate to a market potential on the supply side which may benefit local farmers in the Philippines. In the country, the area planted with Japonica Rice production is small (DOST-PCAARRD, 2016) which translates to a lower local supply in the market. With the growing demand for Japonica Rice, imports fill out the gap. With the opportunities seen, efforts to adapt popular foreign rice varieties to the Philippine setting were considered a sound investment. Though economies of scale may not be achieved, a shorter value chain and the price premium for specialty rice may motivate the players and producers in the market to grow it locally.

    Activities have been done to develop a variety suitable for the conditions of the country. Breeders at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and South Korea’s Rural Development Authority (RDA), through the Grain Utilization Value Added (GUVA) have developed the following cultivars adapted to the Philippines: MS11 (NSIC170 SR), Japonica 1 (NSIC Rc220 SR), Japonica 2 (NSIC Rc242 SR), Japonica 6 (NSIC Rc484 SR), Japonica 7 (NSIC 2019 Rc584 SR), and Cordillera 4 (NSIC 2019 Rc566 SR SR) (Pacleb, et al., 2021). Successful deployment of varieties in the country goes beyond its laboratory and field tests. Given that Japonica rice is considered to be a specialty rice in the country, the involvement of the value chain in this effort is crucial as they will be the actors who will bring such into the baskets of the consumers.

    In new product development, once the internal research and development have been done, in this case, the breeding process, external validation through market testing is necessary. Determining the target market’s acceptability of the new variety is necessary through product testing. This simulates the reaction of potential users of the product itself, in a real-world setting. Market testing provides an opportunity to identify and iterate prototypes and products. This also serves as input for further go-to-market strategies (FAO, 1997). With this, various studies among the market players have been conducted from both the farmer and consumer sides

    1. Farmer Trials

    From 2015 to 2019, Japonica varieties were distributed among farmers in Visayas through a model village project. This activity showed acceptability and willingness to continue as Farmer’s (Hong, et al., 2020) income increased by around 35% on average. There were also trials in Bohol and Nueva Ecija where seed production and distribution were done. Farmers were under a buy-back agreement where their milled rice was marketed. These efforts were under the implementation of cooperatives and private partners where beneficiaries looked forward to planting the Japonica varieties in more areas (GUVA, 2020) (Manigbas & Badajos, 2018) (Manila Bulletin, 2010). In Iloilo, initiatives were also present but farmers did not prefer the tested varieties (MS11 and Millyang 23) due to low yield, high incurred milling loss, and incidences of broken grains.

    2. Consumer Acceptability Tests

    From the consumer’s side, a controlled sensory study using Japonica Rice adapted to tropical regions was conducted last 2015. The results yielded that Filipinos preferred IRKR’s (IRKI Rice and Korea Rice 1) over Jinmibeyeo (Lee, et al., 2015). To note, these varieties are still bred into the non-local variety. This initially provided an avenue for developing Japonica into a local Philippine variety. With this initial literature and research conducted, there was a need to complete the loop to ensure that Japonica will be successfully adapted and marketed in the country. Given that the tests initially were conducted among end-users (households, consumers), another more important perspective is necessary – the business market. Not covered before, these value chain player group may provide better evaluation for Japonica Rice.

    Consumer acceptability tests among end-users of the product are seen necessary before deployment. Commonly, among new rice varieties, the process starts with sensory evaluation of a trained panel, then followed by a product test of the typical end consumers of the product. Rice varieties of IRRI do undergo sensory evaluations to help breeders assess the size, shape, chalkiness, aroma, taste, and texture (Ebron, 2013). Though these are done in controlled laboratories, and among trained panels, the next tests involving potential consumers are also being done through consumer product tests. Consumer product test tests the performance of a product, in its natural environment. There are two types of product tests based on where it was conducted: Central Location Test (CLT) and Home Use Tests (HUT) (Iowa State University, n.d.). Though the former may control as many variables as possible, the latter is seen to be ideal for getting closer-to-reality responses. In gauging the acceptability of parboiled rice, CLT consumer tests were done to determine the in the study of Tomlins et. al. (2007). Though studies have shown that HUT yields more realistic results given the artificial conditions of CLT (Boutrolle, Delarue, Arranz, Rogeaux, & Koster, 2007). In testing the GUVA Japonica Rice, HUT was used. The nature of Japonica Rice in the country, being more of a business product rather than a consumer product, has also contributed to the value of using HUT instead of CLT. The varying treatment and preparation among those who use Japonica Rice also solidified that the GUVA variety needs to undergo HUT.

    3. Japonica Rice and the Business Market

    The specialty rice varieties in the Philippines were patronized either due to their health benefits, heritage value, or dish requirement. Colored rice such as brown, black, red, pink, and violet rice among others was consumed for their iron, zinc, fiber, and antioxidant benefits (Priya, Nelson, Ravichandran, & Antony, 2019). For heritage and cultural value, heirloom rice is an option. Lastly, certain dishes require specific types of rice anchored to the cuisine and culture it represents: Basmati for Indian preparations, Jasmine for Thai Cuisines, and Japonica for East Asian dishes, particularly Korean and Japanese Cuisines. For the variety of interest, Japonica Rice, it is expected that the demand for variety comes from either foreign households who are accustomed to eating such, local households for their personal consumption, or businesses that offer East Asian cuisine such as Japanese, Chinese, and Korean Restaurants. With the current market situation in the country, where the popularity and proliferation of Japanese and Korean enterprises are present, the most strategic test to determine acceptability is among those who are part of these industries from the business side. Japonica rice, unlike other specialty ones, is more of a business product rather than a consumer product. The business market would provide a more realistic, rational, and market-oriented evaluation of the locally-adapted Japonica varieties as they have more experience with it. They are most likely the ones who will patronize such in terms of volume. Though not all are connoisseurs in Japonica Rice, their day-to-day activities have trained them to become familiar with what is expected in the rice compared to the end consumer market. Also, the nature of Japonica being dish specific, the usage of such may have higher turnover among the business market compared to the consumer market.

    This study answered the following objectives to determine the acceptability of locally-adapted Japonica varieties in the Philippine market, to provide relevant information to other value chain players, and to craft recommendations towards the successful adoption among the business market and other stakeholders in the industry.


    To have a better understanding and evaluation of Japonica Rice from the demand side, a product acceptability study was done among business players in the industry. This product test did not revolve only around sensory and preparation attributes but also covers enterprise experiences including preparation, usage, and brand relationships.

    A total of n=69 chefs who are using Japonica were included in the study through purposive sampling. They represent the businesses that they either own or work into. Respondents were selected based on three criteria which should be fulfilled in its entirety: 1.) currently using Japonica Rice; 2.) have direct experience and involved in preparing dishes using Japonica Rice, and 3.) they have decisive influence on the purchase and usage of Japonica Rice. Both face-to-face and technology-aided interviews were done from August 2021 to January 2022 to gather responses considering the health protocols and restrictions in place. Regardless of the data gathering channel used, actual rice product was experienced by the respondents through home use tests (HUT) delivered to their enterprises. To ensure that they were cooking the rice according to its intended use, cooking instructions were included. Questions were mainly quantitative in nature using closedended items with most of the evaluation and assessment questions measured through Likert-scale. To support their responses and ratings, open-ended questions were also included. Given the limited information about the market and lack of a central database for the population of businesses offering food using Japonica Rice, purposive sampling was used with the initial target quota of n=30 for the minimum base for the readability. Currency values based on PHP were converted to USD using the average conversion rate during the study period of PHP 50.49 = 1 USD.

    In terms of scope of location, the study was delimited to getting responses to Metro Manila, CALABARZON, Central Luzon, and Bohol, as these were the areas accessible to the simultaneously conducted efforts, activities, and research of the IRRI GUVA and RDA team. Aside from these location-selection factors, market proximity and demand were also considered.

    1. Home Use Test

    To determine the acceptability of Japonica 2, home use test (HUT) was employed. In this HUT, the product testing was done using within-subject study design (Nielsen Norman Group, 2018). In detail, respondents were asked to cook and prepare Japonica 2, or the test Japonica monadically followed by a sequential-monadic comparative evaluation afterward. This means that though only one product was tested, there’s a comparative evaluation done afterward between the product being tested (Japonica 2) versus the product they are currently using most often. Two stages or visits were implemented in this home use test: The first stage was a general consumer behavior and product evaluation section anchored to the Japonica Rice they are using most often. The first stage served as the basis for the norms for the study. The second stage was where the monadic actual home use test was done followed by product evaluation. In the home use test, respondents cooked the Japonica test product based on how they typically prepare it backed up with cooking instructions for the rice itself provided by the GUVA team. After their independent use of the product, the post-test interviews were conducted.

    2. Importance Matrix

    Based on the consumer behavior questions, importance among attributes was measured through a Likert scale. This revealed the stated importance or the attributes they publicly tell to be of value to them. Another measure included was derived importance. To determine derived importance (Gell, 2021), attribute ratings evaluations (dislike to like) were correlated with their current Japonica rice overall liking using Spearman Rho. Attributes that were significantly correlated were considered to be attributes with derived importance. Plotting these stated and derived importance numbers in a matrix helped classify and identify understated and overstated quadrants that were driving liking towards Japonica Rice Variety.

    The inclusion of attribute importance was relevant as the seen attributes important for the country were not aligned with the qualities expected in Japonica (Custodio, Demont, Laborte, & Ynion, 2016). In the Philippines, rice which has long and slender grains, white, pandan-like flavor was considered good and premium (Custodio, et al., 2019). To gather the expectations and attributes important for Japonica, this segment was included in the study.

    3. Comparative Analysis

    The main objective of the research was to determine the acceptability of locally adapted GUVA Japonica rice variety versus the Japonica rice in the market used by business owners. To ensure that products were independently evaluated on their own merits, comparative evaluations were done on different interview visits. For the first visit, the evaluation was for the Japonica business owners currently use most often, while the GUVA Japonica rice was assessed during the second visit. To simulate the actual market acceptability, the respondent’s most-often used Japonica Rice brand served as the anchor for comparison instead of a uniform Japonica rice.

    In terms of data analysis, given that said methodology falls under within-subject study design (Nielsen Norman Group, 2018) where the same respondent evaluated two Japonica Rice varieties, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks were computed to determine if there were significant differences between the two varieties (Chumney, n.d.). Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test is a nonparametric test for testing significant differences among matched or paid data (Boston University, n.d.).

    4. Van Westendorp Pricing Model

    Widely used in marketing research, the Van Westendorp price sensitivity method (as cited in Lipovetsky, 2016) was used to estimate price and price ranges that the GUVA Japonica commands. (Van Esterndorp, 1976). This pricing mechanism, though only a descriptive measure, has been considered to effectively capture the psychological aspects of the price.

    In this method, four price points that were asked among consumers were plotted in one graph to determine the optimal price and price range for Japonica. These four price points are as follows a) too cheap that is doubtful, b) cheap but is considered bargain, c) expensively premium, d.) too expensive that consumers won’t be considering. In processing the data, the cumulative percentages of respondents per price point are graphed through a line chart. Expensive and too expensive are plotted in increasing percentages, while cheap and too cheap are graphed invertedly. The intersections of the curves of too cheap (a) and too expensive (d) determine the optimal price point (Shaddix, 2020).

    5. Digital Retail Audit

    To provide preliminary information and overview of the market beyond those who are included in the study, a market situationer using digital retail audit was done. With the limited national records on Japonica rice data in the country from national offices (National Food Authority, Department of Trade and Industry, and Department of Agriculture) the next best alternative to country data is through a digital commerce audit. The audit was done by scoping the two major online shopping platforms in the country. Using the keywords Japonica Rice and Japanese Rice, every available post in Shopee and Lazada about these words was extracted, recorded, and organized. A total of n=173 sample posts were collected. The analytical framework representing and reflecting the entire methodology, design, and information collected used in this acceptability research is as follows:


    1. Market Situationer

    In the country, according to the retail audit, available Japonica rice in the Philippine market can be clustered into three: Japonica Specialized: brands that concentrate on offering japonica rice only, Commercial Specialty: commercial brands which offer specialty rice (Jasmine, colored, Thai, Organic) which include Japonica in their portfolio, and Rebranded: Rice which are rebranded/ repackaged with no traces of mother brand. Among these three clusters, Japonica Specialized dominated the market when per-kilo sales were analyzed with Don Quixote and Sakura brands taking more than half of the market share. Even though rebranded Japonica does not specify its origin, it was highly patronized as well. Specialty rice is not yet as common as white rice in the Filipino diet hence various labeling strategies were done. Among the posts, Japonica was commonly labeled as Japanese (77%), Japonica (42%), or Sushi rice (34%). The popularity of leading brands may be attributed to price as the ones priced at the PHP 50.00 (0.99 USD) level were also the brands that achieve the highest market share in terms of volume (kg) (Table 1 and Fig.3 ).

    Online market sellers were mainly Metro Manila (79%) based, which coincided with what the key informants in the value chain have been mentioning. CALABARZON has 13% while North and Central Luzon has a 9% share. The commonly available packaging sizes of Japonica were 1 kg, 2 kg, 5 kg, 10 kg, and 25 kg (Table 2). The most popular size bought online were still the 1kg packs. But in terms of volume, 25 kg packs contribute the most in terms of the entire market volumetrics (Table 2).

    2. Consumer Behavior

    Those who tested the product had equal representations in terms of gender and were distributed among interest areas where projects of IRRI GUVA-RDA are currently cultivated and distributed and where market demand was seen centralized according to the digital audit (Fig. 2). The Japonica using enterprises in the study were offering Japanese (100%) and/or Korean (20%) dishes. They use Japonica Rice mainly for rice rolls (maki, sushi, kimbap) but few explored other forms among their dishes (Table 3. Demographic and Enterprise Profile of Respondents.).

    Almost similar to e-commerce platforms in the digital audit, Japonica specialized brand Sakura was first on the list of being the most often used brand of Japonica. Respondents may not be conscious or specific towards brands as unbranded (14%) ones were highly patronized as well, and some even can’t pinpoint the specific brands (13%) they use.

    3. Purchase Behavior

    Generally, the most popular source of Japonica Rice among them was still from rice specialty stores (51%) or bigasan (Table 4. Purchase Channels for Japonica Rice.). Though, a third of them have direct linkages to agents who provide them with their continuous supply of Japonica Rice. For these businesses, organized retail channels such as supermarkets and groceries seemed to be less popular, maybe because the target market of these were direct end consumers. Online platforms have also been an option but are not yet that popular compared to these physical stores. In case unavailable on their channels, they will most likely stick to Japonica rice and search for other stores selling it (62%), rather than use another variety of rice (34%).

    Their buying habits differed from each other but generally, they do keep inventories of Japonica. More than half did stock up for a specific period and got supplies 1-3x a month (73%). Some replenished more often on a weekly (17%) basis (Table 5). Their monthly demand for Japonica Rice was around 109 kg on average which was bought ranging from 39-55 kg per trip.

    Attributes related to the preparation of rice and eating experience were seen to be of high consideration in rice usage. These included ease of usage (4.49), stickiness (4.45), and taste (4.45). These attributes were also highly noticeable among dishes that were patronized by customers. Softness and aroma seemed to be the least of their concerns, as some have mentioned that during preparation, these attributes can be masked and can be manipulated by adding vinegar and rice wine which were commonly used while preparing dishes using Japonica. For them, stickiness was relatively hard to manipulate and achieve. Compared to sensory attributes, brand attributes seemed to have less importance, except for the price (4.48). Note that low levels for the country of origin provide an opportunity for a locally cultivated GUVA Japonica rice variety.

    Running a Spearman Rho Correlation between the overall liking of their current rice and the specific attributes evaluation generated the derived importance figures (Table 6). This revealed that size, shape, stickiness, taste, and ease of use have a positive relationship with overall liking, with size getting a moderate degree.

    Plotting these two values in a matrix (Fig. 6) elevated size and shape as attributes that should be considered important among Japonica Rice.

    Generally, they were happy with almost all having positive liking towards the brand they currently use (93%). Specific breakdown as delighted (54%) and satisfied (39%) (Fig. 7).

    Brands that achieved higher evaluation ratings were King Crab (5.00) and Don Quixote (4.75). Unbranded (4.8) and brands they only recall as Japonica (4.78) also have high overall evaluations. This means, that unbranded Japonica products are still comparable and well-liked by consumers as well. Evaluating each of the attributes, they generally get what they expect from the current Japonica brands they use. All evaluations among specific attributes garnered overall positive ratings (Fig. 8). Supporting these Likert-ratings, their spontaneous reasons for liking their current Japonica rice were related to stickiness (54%), softness (25%), price (23%), and preparation qualities (20%). When asked about any dislikes for their Japonica, almost half (49%) did not say any. Those who have concerns mentioned that their current rice was either less sticky (9%), less aromatic (7%), a little bit expensive (7%), or has discoloration (7%). Reverting back to the attribute ratings, it was seen that the Japonica rice they currently use has relative challenges in terms of taste and aroma though the degree was still highly positive and was not alarming (Fig. 8).

    On average, they paid around PHP 54.00/kilo (1.07 USD) when buying Japonica rice. The price of the popular ones such as Don Quixote and Sakura ranged from PHP 47.00 (0.93 USD) – PHP 53.00 (1.05 USD). At these price points, these business owners found it generally either affordable or value for their money (Fig. 9).

    4. Japonica Product Test Evaluation and Assessment

    Testing the GUVA Japonica 2 variety garnered mixed spontaneous reactions. After experiencing the product, their initial reactions were polarized. Only a few of them mentioned that it was similar (13%) to the current rice they were using. Around a third mentioned good feedback (29%) about the product, but others, while praising the product raised some concerns (22%). Around the same number immediately aired their concerns about GUVA (36%). Those who have positive (29%) ratings (Fig. 10. Overall Liking of Japonica Rice Varieties (GUVA Test vs Most Popular).) have spontaneous reactions attributed to the overall quality of the grain. Those who have concerns (36%) aired that the rice has discoloration, which is either yellow, off-white, or generally darker. The more common observations were related to the size and shape of the grains being too round and too small.

    Generally, the majority of the people received and liked the GUVA Japonica test product positively, but to a lesser degree compared to the product they currently use. Overall, more are delighted and happy with the current brand they use (Fig. 10).

    Statistically, using Wilcoxon Signed Rank, significant differences were proven between the two (z=3.536, p=0.000) (Table 7) with the GUVA test variety being significantly liked less compared to their current rice used.

    Digging deeper, all specific attributes of the GUVA test variety scored inferior compared to the rice that they are currently using. The larger gaps were seen between size and shape, both of which were understated (derived) attributes that were important to them.

    Similar to the overall ratings, Wilcoxon confirmed that the GUVA Test Japonica’s size, shape, stickiness, and aroma rating differences were statistically significant as well.

    When asked specifically about attributes with specific differences, size was where a great majority noticed one. In every attribute, there were close to half who noticed deviations from their current rice used, except for taste which recorded only a few incidences. The four significantly different attributes in the previous test were also where respondents identified more negative differences.

    In particular, those who saw size differences (75%) complained of rice being too small (63%). According to them, the typical Japonica Rice in the market was already small or short in size, but the GUVA test product was too small. Secondary to the negative difference complaints were about the shape being too round (32%). Both of these may also be attributed to having broken grains which makes them smaller and rounder. In terms of aroma differences, opinions were varied, but around a third have mentioned being less aromatic which was negatively attributed. In terms of stickiness, again, almost a third mentioned being less sticky or buhaghag which made the rice less easy to prepare. A third also negatively mentioned color differences which affected the ease of usage as some (22%) have complained of using more water to clean the rice. Lastly, the least difference among attributes was related to taste.

    Their initial responses and attitude were reflected in purchase intent as more than half still preferred the rice that they are currently using. The GUVA test variety was only chosen by close to a third.

    Though their preference generally favored their current Japonica rice, they mentioned that GUVA may be still considered to be included in their basket (Fig. 13) upon availability. Those who will definitely buy were fueled the curiosity towards trying the new product. Those who do have not strong convictions were considering this as their option given that the rice is relatively similar to the rice they use currently. According to them, it can be an alternative in case inventories dwindle, and if the price is justified. For those who were still 50-50 with their choice, they mentioned that the test product might not be aligned with the quality expected in the market and can only be used for personal consumption and not for commercial use. Those who won't consider the test product already have a good relationship with their current product and feared that switching may lead to customer loss.

    5. Perceived Price

    When asked to estimate the price for the tested product (Table 10) business owners gave an average of around PHP 53.70 (1.06 USD), close to the average price they currently pay for their Japonica rice.

    Using Van Westendorp Price Sensitivity Meter, the perceptive price calculated for GUVA was PHP 51.00 (1.01 USD), still close to the average expected price of PHP 53.70 (1.06 USD)(Table 10. Expected Price of GUVA Test Japonica Rice.) that they are willing to pay for the GUVA Japonica Test Variety. Both expected and perceptive prices align with each other. These prices also align with the average price of Japonica they currently use and the most popular brands in the market. To recap, the average price of Japonica that they currently use is PHP 54.00/kilo (1.07 USD), and to the price of the most popular brands namely Don Quixote and Sakura ranged from PHP 47.00 (0.93 USD) - PHP 53.00 (1.05 USD). With these prices, it can be seen that there was no premium or discount expected from the GUVA Japonica test variety. Hence it is strategic to do going-rate pricing within the range of PHP 51.00 (1.01 USD) to PHP 54.00/kilo (1.07 USD), for GUVA Test Japonica Variety.

    6. Research Implications

    In general, those who tested the product saw differences in physical attributes of size (too small), shape (too round), stickiness (less sticky), aroma (less aromatic), and color (darker), in reference to the Japonica they currently use. Though most of these differences can be attributed to breeding, some particular challenges, namely size, and shape, can be attributed to post-harvest handling and processing particularly when rice is being milled during production. This has been validated by common spontaneous mentions of broken grains. As one of the initial concerns of the breeders, the vulnerability of the GUVA Japonica grains when milled is high which may lead to smaller and more broken grains. Hence, the value chain may require proper information, segregation, and better treatment to ensure the shape and size are still of quality when they reach the consumers. This additional awareness and caution applied during the process may reduce the avoidable damages and deformities.

    For plant breeders, it is good to take note that Japonica Rice can be bred to local varieties in the country. Though, further breeding programs can focus on targeting a rice close to the physical attributes of Japonica Rice Filipinos are accustomed to. Those who commercially use Japonica Rice are already accustomed to using such, hence they do notice differences immediately. The opportunity of offering these locally cultivated Japonica Rice at a price lower than the competition is present as well. With a shorter and more contained value chain, resulting value-added costs may also be lesser which may translate to a more affordable Japonica for the end-users. Though, this is still subject to future research considering that factors such as economies of scale might interfere with and challenge the assumptions. For marketers who will deploy the GUVA Japonica Variety, there is an opportunity of using positioning and advertising to make the variety more acceptable regardless of the ratings it received. The GUVA Japonica Variety can be positioned as a smaller and rounder rice which can be seen to be easier to use given its size and shape. Such can be capitalized as a competitive advantage compared to the current Japonica in the market. On this note, it can command a more premium price as well. Lastly, being a locally produced variety can be an advantage taken as well. Being the only locally bred rice in the market, the rising affinity of Filipinos towards buy-local products partnered with the Filipino-first mentality may provide further success towards making it more marketable and acceptable among consumers.

    These implications and recommendations can be considered to activate the demand and create ripples benefiting the producers and every actors in the value chain involved in cultivating GUVA Japonica Variety.

    적 요

    국제미작연구소와 농촌진흥청의 협력과제(GUVA)를 통하여 개발한 열대 지역 적응 자포니카 쌀 품종의 시장 수용성을 판 단하기 위해 필리핀 쌀 시장의 69개 사업주를 대상으로 시장 테스트를 실시했습니다. 일반적으로 필리핀 쌀 시장의 자포니 카 쌀 사업주들은 현재 그들이 사용하고 있는 자포니카 쌀에 대해 만족해하고 있으며, 현재 지불하고 있는 가격에 대해서 도 그럴 만한 가치가 있고, 품질이 좋다고 생각하고 있습니다.

    필리핀 쌀 시장 사업주들은 현재 그들이 사용하고 있는 자 포니카 쌀에 비해 본 연구에서 제시한 자포니카 쌀에 대해서 는 쌀의 크기가 너무 작고, 모양이 둥글며, 향이 없고, 찰기가 낮다는 이유로 그리 높이 평가하지는 않았습니다. 이러한 특 성은 상업적인 수용성에 영향을 미칠 수 있으므로 앞으로 개 선해 나가야 할 점으로 제시하였습니다. 이러한 인식에도 불 구하고, 사업주들은 본 연구에서 제시한 자포니카 쌀의 상업 적 이용에 대해 긍정적으로 고려한다고 하였습니다.

    Van Westerndorp 가격 책정 모델을 사용하여 이들 자포니 카 쌀은 경쟁 제품과 동등한 PHP 51.00(1.01 USD)의 가격 을 산출했습니다. 이러한 결과는 이들 쌀이 상업시장에 나올 때까지 가치 사슬 참여자가 품질을 보존하고 유지할 수 있도 록 조치를 취해야만 가능하다고 하였습니다.


    This work was conducted with the support of the “Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science & Technology Development (Project title: The Germplasm Utilization for Value Added (GUVA) Traits of Japonica Rice (Phase II), Project No. PJ0170832022 Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea).



    Stated Vs. Derived Importance Matrix.


    Analytical Framework of the Japonica Product Testing.


    Average Price and Volume Sold for every Japonica Brand in the E-Commerce Platforms.


    Most Popular Japonica Brands among the Respondents.


    Stated Importance among Japonica Rice Attributes.


    Stated and Derived Importance Matrix.


    Overall Liking towards the Most Popular Japonica Brands.


    Attribute Specific Ratings for the Most Popular Japonica Brands.


    Price Assessment for the Most Popular Japonica Brands.


    Overall Liking of Japonica Rice Varieties (GUVA Test vs Most Popular).


    Specific Attribute Liking (GUVA Test vs Most Popular Brand).


    Incidence of Identifying Differences and Positiveness or Negativeness of Differences.


    Purchase Intent for GUVA Test Japonica Rice.


    Van Westendorp Price Model for GUVA Test Japonica Rice.


    Volume, Market Share, and Average Price of Japonica in E-commerce Platforms.

    Volume and Price Table of Different Kilo Pack Sizes of Japonica Rice.

    Demographic and Enterprise Profile of Respondents.

    Purchase Channels for Japonica Rice.

    Purchase Frequency and Quantity Among Japonica Rice Business Market.

    Spearman Rho Correlation Coefficients for Derived Importance.

    Wilcoxon Test of Significance (GUVA Test vs Most Popular Brand).

    Wilcoxon Test of Significance among Specific Attributes.

    Preference between Japonica Rice Varieties.

    Expected Price of GUVA Test Japonica Rice.


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